By González, Hebe Alicia
This dissertation offers a linguistic description of Tapiete, a Tupi-Guarani (TG) language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Fieldwork has been carried out in Argentina, the place approximately eighty Tapiete households are settled in "Misión Los Tapietes", Tartagal, province of Salta, northern Argentina. hence, the linguistic info and the result of this examine mirror the diversity spoken via the Tapietes dwelling in Argentina. the most good points of Tapiete phonology, the nominal and the verbal morphology, in addition to the syntactic constitution are investigated. on the lexical point, a vocabulary of 2049 entries and four hundred subentries is equipped in response to the knowledge accrued throughout the elicitation of lexical questionnaires and texts. particularly, this dissertation investigates the expression of ownership in Tapiete, as its default marker of ownership has built from a sensible extension of the default marker of ownership, t-, of sophistication II nouns in TG languages. moreover, an extra formalization of the alienable/inalienable competition happens, expressed in the course of the lifestyles of other units of 3rd individual markers.In addition, this paintings discusses the restructuring of the cross-reference procedure in Tapiete. especially, it describes the shortcoming of an overt marker of 3rd individual for verbs that belong to Jensen's Set 1, except for monosyllabic roots, and the encoding of the 1st individual energetic and inactive plural particular throughout the verbal root marked for 3rd individual, including the affixation of the TG nominalizing morpheme -ha. furthermore, the Tapiete model of Jensen's Set four individual markers differs from that of TG languages: whereas in TG languages those kinds are portmanteau morphemes that encode a primary individual singular or plural performing on a moment individual singular (e.g. TG oro-) or a primary individual singular or plural performing on a moment individual plural (e.g TG opo-), in Tapiete, either varieties encode a primary individual singular, with out threat in their being interpret Read more...
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Tapiete (Tupi-Guarani)
It is also necessary to point out that even in those families where mixed marriages do not exist and, 26 consequently, all members are Tapiete native speakers, parents generally use Spanish to address their children. The following chart systematizes the information offered by people I interviewed with respect to the usage of Tapiete language. 23 Ages Tapiete speaking 71 – 80 100% Tapiete and Spanish speaking Speaks Spanish and understands Tapiete Spanish monolingual from Tapiete parents 61 - 70 100% 51 - 60 91% 41 - 50 100% 31 - 40 88% 12% 21 - 30 55% 26% 18% 11 - 20 15% 42% 43% 3 - 10 3% 45% 52% 9% Table 1: Tapiete command with relation to people’s ages The chart shows the sudden adoption of Spanish by part of the population that was, up to no more than 30 years ago, Tapiete monolingual.
G. how to represent a nasal vowel with a typewriter) to political ones (the acceptability or not of the orthographic conventions already adopted by other languages of the same linguistic family). This last topic is not less important because the common history of the two native peoples, who are linguistically related can be marked by relations stormy enough to make them unwilling to show any kind of similarity. 26 According to the perception of the kindergarten teacher, indigenous children are always ‘slower’ than Criollo ones.
The following is a non-exhaustive list of minimal pairs. g. bilabial vs. alveolar point of articulation of voiceless stops, high front vowel vs. 1. Consonants /p/ vs. /t/ /peku/ [peku] penku ‘kind of bird’ /teku/ [teku] tenku ‘tongue’ /dp/ [dp] yipi ‘trunk’ /dt/ [dt] yiti ‘line’ /karu/ [kau] karu ‘(s)he eats’ /kwaru/ [kwau] kwaru ‘(s)he urinates’ /saka/ [saka] saka little firewood’ /sakwa/ [sakwa] sakwa ‘hole’ /hea/ [hea] he’a ‘(s)he intermingles’ /heka/ [heka] heka ‘(s)he looks for’ /k/ [k] kï’ï ‘chile’ /kr/ [k] kïrï ‘to be ticklish’ /tu/ [tu] tu ‘father’ /ru/ [u] ru ‘to bring’ /pete/ [pete] pete ‘(s)he punish’ /pere/ [pee] pere ‘wound’ /k/ vs.
A Grammar of Tapiete (Tupi-Guarani) by González, Hebe Alicia